Yalch and Spangenberg 1990 suggest that any retailer wishing to convey a high prestige, high price image should consider classical background music. In order to qualify as being handled, an item must have been pulled from the shelf by a customer. It is also possible, however, that consumers had very little experience purchasing wines, and thus had only vague expectations and intentions upon entering the cellar. The results of the present study support this contention. This was defined as the sum of all items i. However, the implicit assumption underlying such a pretesting procedure, that individuals have relatively homogeneous reactions to the musical selections regarding the dimensions of interest, is somewhat suspect see Cupchik et al, 1982. The classical music may have communicated a sophisticated, upper class, atmosphere, suggesting that only expensive merchandise should be considered.
Further, since preferences for musical genres are strongly influenced by individual differences see Cupchik, Rickert, and Mendelson, 1982 , varying the genre of a store's background music is more likely to produce differential effects across customer groups. The second threat to internal validity concerns the inability to control for exogenous factors that might have influenced the amount of store traffic on a given night. The data were collected via direct observation. I was suspicious of its trappings and cowed by its air of sophistication p. Wine drinkers also had a higher appreciation for art and lower regard for traditional female roles. It is the first and a favorite collection in our series of tried and true sing-along classics. Although researchers have examined the effects of music volume Smith and Curnow, 1966 and tempo Milliman, 1982, 1986 on certain aspects of shopping behavior, Bruner 1990 suggests that the genre of the background music is likely to produce stronger effects on perceptions and preferences.
At least two explanations for the results are suggested under this scenario. The same holds for other sought shopping experiences like excitement, relaxation, etc. In discussing the undertaking of his book on wine, Kramer 1989 , for example, notes that: At the time I knew nothing of wine and had no intention of crossing its path. A second shortcoming of this research concerns the inability to assess the reliability of the observational measures due to reliance on a single judge. Likewise, DiMaggio 1986 has developed a model describing the patronage behavior of performing arts audiences.
Perhaps musical tempo, rather than genre, produces a stronger influence on these variables see Milliman, 1982, 1986. Eroglu, Sevgin and Gilbert D. Purchase Behavior: Both observational and objective measures of purchase behavior were employed in the present study. Specifically, researchers have focused on overt quantitative indicators i. Like Hoyer, the authors of the present research attempted to minimize measurement error by developing: 1 highly specific descriptions of the behaviors to be observed, and 2 a coding scheme that was easy to implement. Wine seemed forbidding, snobbish, and, above all, daunting in its complication. Ellsworth, and Elliot Aronson 1976 , Methods of Research in Social Psychology, New York: Random House.
If this was the case, then the background music may have operated independently of the expected purchase experience. Most of the null results were obtained for actual behaviors. The literature on atmospherics would, therefore, be enhanced by research examining the impact of atmospheric variables on a wider range of consumer behavior in an actual retail setting. Classical versus Top-Forty background music was manipulated by repeatedly playing only selections from one of the two genres on a given night. Though it did not directly test formal hypotheses, this result offers support for MacInnis and Parks' 1991 notion that music must be appropriate for the context in which it is employed in order to enhance persuasion, and for Yalch and Spangenberg's 1990 suggestion that classical music evokes perceptions of higher priced store merchandise. However, numerous other differences may have existed between the two groups, thus biasing our interpretation of the observed variation in total sales by music condition. Yalch and Spangenberg 1990 examined this possibility by comparing the effects of easy-listening versus Top-Forty music on shoppers' estimates of the amount of time they spent shopping.
The research that has appeared tends to be limited to a rather narrow range of consumer reactions. Although Kotler requested that further research be conducted regarding the impact of these in-store factors on behavior, the academic literature on this topic remains rather sparse. Gardner and Siomkos, 1986 or visual i. Areni, Texas Tech University David Kim, Texas Tech University As part of a field experiment in a large U. The observational measures of information processing activity in the present study were somewhat more complex. Stone 1983 provides a more detailed discussion of the association of classical music with maturity, formality, and higher socio-economic status.
The full album is not sold separately. It is possible that shoppers, being somewhat unfamiliar with wine cellars and wines in general, used the classical music as a cue and inferred that the cellar contained mostly high priced merchandise. Rather, the researchers employed a counterbalanced experimental design wherein the successive Fridays and Saturdays of the sixteen week period of the study were randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Although single observers have been employed in previous research on atmospherics see Milliman, 1982 , the behaviors to be recorded were simple in nature i. Smith, Patricia Cain and Ross Curnow 1966. The observer counted the number of items examined.
In order to check for preexisting differences between groups, chi-square analyses were performed on cross-tabulations of background music condition with each of the two primary sample descriptors, customer age and customer type. These recordings were selected because they were similar to the classical selections played in the wine cellar before the study began. In order to remove variance in each dependent variable due to differences in levels of store traffic, average behaviors rather than total behaviors constituted the observations for a given night. Overall, the implication is that, if wine tasting and consumption are sophisticated, prestigious, complicated, and even snobbish behaviors, then the classical genre of music appears to be well suited for complimenting these activities. Each of the two experimental conditions i.
Consistent with this objective, this study entailed the observation of: 1 the number of shelf items examined, handled, and purchased, 2 the shelf location of the items examined, handled, and purchased, 3 the total dollar amount of the merchandise purchased, 4 the total amount of time spent shopping, and 5 the frequency with which patrons consumed merchandise on site, under two background music conditions Top-Forty versus classical in a downtown wine store. While these laboratory simulation techniques offer the advantages of methodological expediency and experimental control, their ability to realistically capture the desired store atmosphere is suspect. The observer, who was naive to the research hypotheses, stood behind a counter labeled 'Employees Only' and posed as an inventory keeper. One possibility, suggested by the work of Markin, Lillis, and Narayana 1976 , and an anonymous reviewer, is that, given the unfamiliar setting of the wine cellar, consumers, consciously or unconsciously, sought external cues as to appropriate behavior. Eroglu, Sevgin, and Karen A. Data Analysis Because this study was conducted in the field rather than the laboratory, individual subjects were not randomly assigned to each music condition.