We believe, in fact, that the third reason is the most important, at least for Japan. Another interesting question is to examine what fields or working conditions such as wages, working hours, etc. We would like to investigate these questions. It is important to investigate the reasons why union members are dissatisfied with unions. Oswald 1985 , and Farber 1986 show useful survey articles about this issue with the union objective. This book intends to examine these changes in trade union movements and the effect of trade unions on various economic variables such as wages, working hours, productivity, labour shares, etc.
It is worthwhile to attempt to discover what happens if other qualifications are common between males and females. Why, then, do they join unions in these industries? Qualifications here imply the difference by sex i. Responsibility: toshiaki Tachibanaki and tomohiko Noda. Employees in smaller firms are sceptical about the effect of a union. It is not clear why firms with 100—299 employees have such an unusual figure.
The first is that some satisfied workers do not stay in the firm, but try to change their employers to seek better employers. Since the current industrial relations system in Japan moves towards this direction, it is possible to anticipate that the degree of expectation for trade unions will diminish gradually. Let us examine whether or not the last observation is supported empirically by our data. The Fundamental Survey on Trade Unions reports the amount of union fees in 1990 as follows. In other words, workers express only their preference or opinions on labour turnover, and they do not indicate their real actions of labour turnover.
Unionvoices here signify that the above better treatment for unsatisfied workers initiated by unions and followed by employers works well. The similar quantification was made for easiness of job, working hours, and superior persons i. Is it higher wages, or shorter working hours? Scaling of this variable was made in the following way: the numerical figure 1 is given to the preference that all employees should receive equal wages, if their ages and educational attainments are common; 2 is given to the case in which the difference between the highest earner and the lowest one should be kept within 20 per cent; 3 is given to the case between 20 per cent and 30 per cent; 4 is given to the case over 50 per cent; and 5 is given to the case in which no regulation on wage determination should be provided. This kind of examination enables us to know the reasons why the rate of union participations has declined, and the expectations of union activities by members who stay in unions. One example is the Electric Industry Union which abandoned recently the principle of egalitarianism i.
It is possible to conceive of the following hypothesis, after we discussed the relationship between satisfaction and unions: there are two kinds of dissatisfaction among employees. This proposition is somewhat similar to the question of the famous chicken and egg problem. The Japanese case may be different from Europe and North America. It is important to supplement the fact that the empirical result in Table 4. It is shown that most of the variation in published results is due to specification differences between studies. This result is reconciled with previous findings by considering the uniqueness of the macro-economic conditions of the sample period. The difference with respect to wages, however, is very marginal, although the degree of propensity to move among satisfied workers with current wages is somewhat higher than that among dissatisfied workers.
It is true to say that no concerned agents such as employers, employees and the government in Japan know the exact figures of wages in newly unionized firms, or of already unionized firms, i. It is recognized that very low rates of qualifications are given to employees with fixedterm durations, part-time employees, retired workers, employees who were sent from affiliated firms, workers who were detached or sent from specialized firms, and workers in subsidiary firms. The union fee is the source of such economic support to full-time union officials. The larger the number of unionized firms, the larger the number of union members. They applied a flow-stock analysis to confirm the above evidence statistically. The gap declines for sales workers. In this paper, clustered data analysis and hierarchical linear meta-regression models are applied to the population of forty-five econometric studies that report 532 estimates of the direct effect of unions on profits.
One feature of our data is that we pay equal attention to both trade union members and non-trade union members. The overall result based on Table 3. At the same time, the power of unions in these industries is fairly weak. In sum, all variables are quantified by 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1. We can cite several reasons for the lack of interest. Incidentally, the survey article by Blanchflower and Freeman 1992 does not examine the effect of firm size on unionization.
They picked up only newly unionized firms. It is useful to examine these variables in addition to wage payments in order to evaluate the overall effect of trade unions because the behaviour of trade unions is supposed to affect various fields of working conditions. Disqualification of employees with fixed-term durations and part-time employees is serious because the number of these employees is very large. The book uses various useful individual survey data for both firms and employees to draw pure effects of trade unions. Tim Farmiloe encouraged us to publish this book. It implies that the probability of leaving the firm is higher for dissatisfied workers i. They are 1 Electricity, gas and water, 2 Transportation and communication, 3 Finance and real estate and 4 Public services.
Most new unions are organized in this way. Among many studies, Freeman and Medoff 1984 received wide attention both from the general public and academic circles. The labour side or trade unions can use such labour disputes as an instrument to raise its bargaining power over employers for the determination of wages and other working conditions. Satisfaction associated with job assignment and easiness of job has a positive effect on propensity to stay, like the case of male workers. Ohashi 1993 presented an interesting analysis of Japanese union behaviour along the lines of this approach. Second, both the quantity and quality of economic studies undertaken for the two countries are numerous and excellent. It may not be an overstatement that trade unions in Japan have very little hope of greatly reversing the declining trend.