Braker Professor of Law at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. Individualistic versus Communal Paradigms One major source of cultural tension, as noted by Raymond Cohen, is the difference between individualistic and communal cultural paradigms. Martin's Press July 4, 2003 is available in hardcover. Negative emotions such as anger, resentment, and jealousy can be destructive in a negotiation, since expressing such emotions can diminish trust in a relationship, divert attention from substantial issues, damage a relationship, and provide insight into emotional triggers or weak points that the other party may identify and exploit. Culture profoundly influences how people think, communicate, and behave. Basic Human Needs Theory The theory of basic human needs, pioneered by John Burton in the 1960s, asserts that the repression of certain non-material universal social needs—namely identity, participation, recognition, and security—leads to conflict. For example, in negotiations in China on a major deal, it would not be uncommon for the Americans to arrive at the table with three people and for the Chinese to show up with ten.
Methods of communication vary among cultures. The five analytical approaches on which this briefing note focuses are: 1 distributive, or power-based, negotiation; 2 integrative, or interest-based, negotiation; 3 basic human needs-based negotiation; 4 the behavioral approach to negotiation; and 5 culture as a factor in negotiation. We offer a , and form, to make purchasing quick and easy. The latter may use circumlocutions, figurative forms of speech, facial expressions, gestures and other kinds of body language. Anticipate reactions and your response to them. Salacuse illustrates the many ways in which an international deal may falter and the methods parties can use to save it, provides the necessary technical knowledge to structure specific business transactions, and explores the transformations to the international business landscape over the last decade. Although the written contact expresses the relationship, the essence of the deal is the relationship itself.
Generally, Americans prefer very detailed contracts that attempt to anticipate all possible circumstances and eventualities, no matter how unlikely. When you negotiate with such a team, it may not be apparent who the leader is and who has the authority to commit the side. Through relationship building and long-term acceptance strategies, a humanitarian negotiator might be able to cultivate an environment in which integrative strategies can eventually be employed, but from the outset, humanitarian negotiators evidently should not expect the process to unfold in an automatically integrative manner. Risk taking: High or low? Many studies have noted French individualism. Some cultures emphasize the individual while others stress the group.
Differences in culture between business executives—for example, between a Chinese public sector plant manager in Shanghai and a Canadian division head of a family company in Toronto— can create barriers that impede or completely stymie the negotiating process. Salacuse will guide the reader from the first handshake with a potential foreign partner to the intricacies of making the international joint venture succeed and prosper, or should things go poorly, how to deal with getting out of a deal gone wrong. List the people you like and dislike and why. In what circumstances have humanitarian negotiators been able to engage in creative problem solving to foster integrative approaches? Begin with small talk, and then offer both sides to present their goals. The aim of The Global Negotiator is to equip business executives with that exact knowledge. In a culture that values directness, such as the American or the Israeli, you can expect to receive a clear and definite response to your proposals and questions. In The Global Negotiator: Making, Managing, and Mending Deals Around the World in the Twenty-First Century, a , Jeswald Salacuse provides executives, managers, lawyers, and government officials with a comprehensive guide to handling these negotiations from start to finish — from the first handshake with a potential foreign partner, through the intricacies of making an international joint venture succeed and prosper, even how to get out of a deal gone wrong.
It is said that Germans are always punctual, Latins are habitually late, Japanese negotiate slowly, and Americans are quick to make a deal. In cultures that rely on indirect communication, such as the Japanese, reaction to your proposals may be gained by interpreting seemingly vague comments, gestures, and other signs. Existing policy guidance on humanitarian negotiation draws heavily on the integrative approach. According to the stereotype, Latin Americans show their emotions at the negotiating table, while the Japanese and many other Asians hide their feelings. Indeed, a great deal of existing literature focuses on this link between personality and negotiating style.
I wish that Professor Salacuse's valuable book would have been available when I first began traveling the world to negotiate with governments and international entities over 25 years ago. Try to get agreement on something to circumvent impasses. In today's global business environment, an executive must have the skills and knowledge to navigate all stages of an international deal, from negotiations to managing the deal after it is signed. Its purpose is to identify specific negotiating traits affected by culture and to show the possible variation that each traitor factor may take. The Book of Agreement: 10 Essential Elements for Getting the Results You Want.
Whereas most books on negotiation end when the deal is made, Jeswald W. The focus is on developing mutually beneficial agreements based on the interests of the negotiators, with the understanding that interests are the underlying reasons that people become involved in a conflict. It is a volume filled with wisdom, useful tools, and sound advice. One extreme is the negotiating team with a supreme leader who has complete authority to decide all matters. For Americans, negotiating a deal is basically making a series of compromises and trade-offs on a long list of particulars. The Brazilians, the Chinese, and the Mexicans to a far greater degree than any other groups preferred one-person leadership, a reflection perhaps of the political traditions of those countries. Distributive, or Power-Based, Negotiation The main underlying assumption of distributive negotiation is that a fixed amount of value exists on the negotiating table to be distributed among the negotiating parties.
The Egyptians interpreted Israeli directness as aggressiveness and, therefore, an insult. On Arab cultures, see generally Paul E. With this knowledge, you may be better able to understand the negotiating styles and approaches of counterparts from other cultures. Unlike who may also offer The Global Negotiator Making, Managing and Mending Deals Around the World in the Twenty-First Century books on their website, we specialize in large quantities and provide personal service, from trusted, experienced, friendly people in Portland, Oregon. Many American teams tend to follow this approach. Faced with a risk-averse counterpart, how should a deal maker proceed? This difference between the Indian and U.