The strength of believing in these nerve-wrecking rituals even in the midst of a western environment and in the face of American doctors, can be judged from arecent case of seventy frightened Navaho Indians, tuberculosis patients in an Arizona sanitarium, who during a thunderstorm had to be quieted by the magie herbs and the 'sing' of a native medicine man flown to the hospital. In many cases, a careful comparison with the various ancient feet and inches in metrological records allows to identify the provenience and approximate date of a flute. Their music, poetry and instruments, Oxford, I948, pp. But the sentence cannot be inverted: music without notation is not limited to scriptless societies. How strict this domination of poetry over music can be - and here we return to our primitive ground - appears in the unbeliev-ably simple recitation of national epics. S9 Tracy's transcription in Allce Fletcher, The Hako ceremony, Washington, 1904, p. I wish to express my deep gratitude to him, whose dedi- cated help and unfailing and devoted interest made its publi- cation possible.
Polynesians, alike, adapt their voices to changing purpose of singing: the Tuamotu in the West make their voices breathy, low, mysterious for chants to exorcise the evil spirits. Secondal melodies can be adorned with affixes only. Indeed, all our thinking is a form of eomparison: to speak of a blue sky is comparing it with a grey or a purpie one. These archives were meant to collect and conserve exotic cylinders and, later, discs and tapes , to have them ready for serious studies, and to encourage the use of recording machines on scientific expeditions. The solution is transposition by an octave or even two, once more incumbent on our unreliable ears. If the guest or the boys make amistake, the culprit must pay a moderate fine. More-over, its vibrations are marked from five to five cyc1es, as against the more accurate division from two to two cyc1es on Reiner's model.
Lyres, harps, and zithers belong to the first group, and lutes to the second. The musical instru-ments as weIl were deseribed, depicted, and interpreted in numberless papers and books. They also deceive the reader by suggesting, in the conflict between the familiar lines we see and the unfamiliar steps we hear, that the exotic melodies in question are out of tune, in other words, that the West is right and the East is wrong. And respect implies the duty to help in preserving it. Meanwhile, an English High Court judge in Calcutta, William lones, had in I784 written On the musical modes 01 the Hindoos, of which a German translation by F. Still, in and outside the polyphonie style the seript was sketchy even in Europe; the chord-improvising 'realizers' of figured basses during the Baroque Age were just given a fundamental bass-part to build upon to the best of their skill and imagination; and the melody singers and players of the same era performed from a skeletal seript whieh left to everyone the right and the duty to embellish and vary the seript at his diseretion or, in the words of the Flemish musician Adriaen Petit Coelieus 1552 , to spice the meat with salt and mustard.
N eat examples of tumbling strains organically transformed into triadic octaves are found in a recorded song of the Mandingo in Liberia. Physiologically conditioned intensity has been exemplified earlier in this book: true tumbling strains start always in for-tissimo and weaken until the bottom note is sung in pianissimo. The same is tme of quite a number of regularly coupled instmments: in the New Hebrides, the biggest slit-drum is called the mother which may also be due to matriarchal concepts , and in the Islamic belt the larger of two kettledmms is defined as female this time in the absence of matriarehai connotations. This is easy enough to explain: the backbone of a scriptless culture are tradition and memory; both vanish under the impact of generalliteracy, and with them fade the imagination and creativeness of uneducated performers. The last tone often broke into a shuddering sob.
Inverting the unmistakable symbol of lengthening to indicate the opposite meaning would be just as artificially rationalistic as turning the Cross upside down to symbolize non-Christian faiths: the form of a symbol impresses our eyes much more than does its position. People with sullen faces came out of the chapel; they seemed to me mere shadows of Nagas, or, even worse, caricatures of Europeans. With all these substitutions we are in the midst of the im-portant horn-, drum-, whistle-, and slit-drum languages in Melanesia, Africa, and South America, all based on the realistic imitation of speech-pitches and rhythms, not on conventional Morse codes with symbols long and short. Curt Sachs ha seguito criteri di comparazione musicale mediante l'applicazione di parametri quali il ritmo, l'intervallo, il tempo e le scale ad aree culturali ed ai periodi storici differenti, dalla musica del mondo classico e preclassico alle civiltà extraeuropee, dove le funzioni, le norme ed i significati sociali del fare musica obbediscono ad esigenze diverse. Thus the anthropologist gains a synopsis of the various successive civilizations living alongside on the present surfaee of the earth. Garfield, Wingert, Barbeau, The Tsimshian, New York, 1952, example no.
The following piece of theatrical music, played on the popular three-stringed lute or samisen,ll descends in all its phrases and from the depth leaps back to the upper octave or even the double octave eH. The concept that we need is 'step. With just as much gusto, the Kayabi in the Mato Grosso imitate the voices of birds, otters, monkeys, and jaguars; 81 and with exquisite art the Eskimo render the cries of geese, swans, and walruses - not for entertainment, not for magical purposes, but simply to bring these animals within the hunter's shooting range. Wachsmann, Folk musicians in Uganda, Kampala, 1956, p. More-over, major and minor are almost inseparable from a harmonie system foreign to the primitives and apt to misrepresent their musicallanguage. Do not argue that, while you have only a sharpened C in your piece, you should liberally add an F sharp in the signature since in our western music no C sharp occurs without an F sharp. How people sing is no less meaningful than what they sing.
Burrows, Native music of the Tuamotus, in Bernice P. Such detailed analysis from continent to continent cannot be carried through in this general study. Ethnologists became eager, able phonographers and delivered an ample harvest to be taken care of in the Archiv. Indonesia shows the sharpest outline: tuned idiophonic sets, like xylophones, metallophones, and gong chimes, have an uncontested leading role and together with one single drum , often unite to form the famous gamelans or orchestras. We take development, evolution, and revolution for granted in the concerthall and on the operatic stage, but resent the simplest ninth chord in the settings of popular music. The ensuing connotations are often in agreement and sometimes contradictory.
This statement excepts Black Africa, where the drum in solos and ensembles seems to be almost indispensable. Since the concept of melody is far from being unambiguous, it might here be defined as the audible movement of a singing voice or, much later, of an instrument from the beginning of a piece through all successive steps to its end. The ages of the machine, of electricity, 100 A. The melodies of primitive man, an organic, essential part of his spirituallife, fall victim to Christian mission-aries, Soviet agents, European colonizers, and American oil drillers. Generally speaking, the difficulties are the same in musicology and in anthropology, on which the interested reader may consult the report of a seasoned explorer: Chapter 20 on The Ethnographers Laboratory in M. The charms for wind and rain must be of an analogous kind of homoeopathy. The chroai or 'shades' within the otherwise normal scales, of which we read in Archytas, Aristoxenos, Ptolemy, and other theorists, were hardly more than futile attempts to mathematize, legalize, and codify what in fact was entirely left to the player's taste and whim.
Mere whistling with the mouth has the same effect. Be their symbols borrowed from the alphabet or from descriptive gestures like the 'neumes' of the Middle Ages, be they fingering guides like the instrumental 'tablatures,' or conventional signs for certain groups of notes, they render at best a lifeless skeleton. Not even divinities are exempt from this elementary dualism - the skies and the underworld have their gods and their goddesses: Zeus with Hera, Osiris with Isis, Odin with Frigg. But counting is a poor help in cultural history, the more so as repe-tition and alternation seem to differ beyond comparison, one 64 E. With or without the hyphen, this word is somewhat unwieldy and its meaning obseure to people who have not even a clear idea of musieology without a prefix.